Facts About Glycerine

Glycerinum (U. S. P.)-Glycerin.
Preparations: Glycerita.-Glycerites - Suppositories of Glycerin - Glycerin 
Lotion - Preparations
Related entry: Sapo (U. S. P.)-Soap
Other tomes: Cook - Felter - Ellingwood - Petersen - BPC - AJP Mar 1871 
(Glycerin quality) - AJP Dec 1871

FORMULA: C3H5(OH)3. MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 91.79.
"A liquid obtained by the decomposition of vegetable or animal fats or fixed 
oils, and containing not less than 5 per cent of absolute glycerin (C3H5[OH]3= 
91.79)"-(U. S. P.).
SYNONYMS: Glycerina (U. S. P., 1870), Glycerine, Glycerol, Propenyl alcohol.

History and Preparation.-Glycerin was discovered, in 1779, by Scheele in the 
saponification products of olive oil by means of litharge, and later recognized 
by him as a common constituent of other oils and fats, and therefore named the 
"sweet principle of fats." Chevreul gave it the name glycerin, and cleared up 
the nature of its combination in the fats. Glycerin, or glycerol, as it is now 
preferably called to indicate its alcohol character, is a trihydric alcohol 
(C3H5[OH]3), containing the trivalent radical "glyceryl" (C3H5). It exists in 
oils and fats, combined with palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in the form of 
glycerylesters of these acids (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein; also see 
under Adeps). In some oils and fats it is combined partially with other 
acids-e. g., in butter-wherein 5 per cent of the total fat is 
glyceryl-tributyrate, or tributyrin; in cod-liver oil it is said to exist in 
part combined with acetic acid, as glyceryl triacetate, or triacetin, etc. 
Glycerin also exists in the yolk of eggs and the human brain in the form of 
phospho-glyceric acid. Pasteur's researches have also established its 
occurrence as a regular constituent among the products of fermentation (see 
Alcohol).

On a small scale glycerin may be obtained in the process which led to its 
discovery, viz., that of making lead plaster (see Emplastrum Plumbi). The late 
Mr. Robert Shoemaker prepared by this method probably the first Commercial 
glycerin in the United States, in 1848, at $4.00 a pound (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 
1879, p. 289). The article became official in the U. S. P., in 1850.

Large quantities of glycerin are now obtained as a by-product in the 
manufacture of soaps and candles. This was formerly thrown away as useless. The 
principle involved is simply that of splitting the fat into its constituents 
(fatty acid and glycerin) by adding the elements of water (see Emplastrum 
Plumbi). The process of saponification is being carried out in several 
different ways: (1) With alkalies; the fatty acids thereby combine with alkali 
and form soap (see Sapo); the glycerin in diluted form is contained in the 
aqueous layer below the soap. (2) With milk of lime (old process of Campbell 
Morfit, see this Dispensatory, previous revision), or with milk of lime and 
water in closed vessels under a pressure of 10 atmospheres and a temperature of 
172¡ C. (242.6¡ F.) (Milly's Autoclave Process, see Prof. S. P. Sadtler, 
Handbook of Indust. Org. Chem., 1895, p. 56). The glycerin water separates from 
the layer of lime soap and fatty acids; glycerin is obtained therefrom best by 
evaporation in vacuo. (3) With superheated steam ("aqueous saponification") and 
subsequent redistillation of the raw glycerin. This method was introduced, in 
1855, by Messrs. Wilson and Paine, and marked a great step forward in the 
problem of obtaining a pure article. In saponifying the fats with superheated 
steam, the temperature must not exceed 300¡ C. (572¡ F.), or else decomposition 
products will be formed. Both the fatty acid and the glycerin distill over. In 
redistilling the raw glycerin by superheated steam, the liquid is heated to 
about 180¡ C. (356¡ F.), and the steam has a temperature of about 110¡ C. (230¡ 
F.). For details regarding the manufacture of glycerin, consult the various 
works on chemical technology.

Description.-Glycerin is officially described as follows; "A clear, colorless, 
liquid, of a thick, syrupy consistence, oily to the touch, odorless, very sweet 
and slightly warm to the taste. When exposed to the air, it slowly abstracts 
moisture. Specific gravity, not less than 1.260 at 15¡ C. (59¡ F.). Soluble, in 
all proportions, in water or alcohol, also soluble in a mixture of 3 parts of 
alcohol and 1 part of ether, but insoluble in ether, chloroform, carbon 
disulphide, benzin, benzol, and fixed or volatile oils. Glycerin is slowly 
volatilized from an aqueous solution, at or above 100¡ C. (212¡ F.), with the 
vapor of water. Heated by itself to a higher temperature, it yields acrid 
decomposition products, boils at a temperature at or above 165¡ C. (329¡ F.), 
and is finally entirely decomposed and dissipated"-(U. S. P.). The exceedingly 
irritating decomposition products are chiefly due to the formation of acrolein 
(allyl aldehyde, C2H3.CHO), which is also formed when fats are burned, or when 
glycerin is heated with strong sulphuric acid. Yet Prof. Trimble has 
demonstrated (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1885, p. 275) the propriety of the use of the 
vapors of pure glycerin for inhalations, the details being as follows: When 50 
grammes of pure glycerin were slowly heated in an open capsule, vaporization 
became abundant at 130¡ C. (266¡ F.). At 264¡ C. (497.2¡ F.), slight boiling 
was perceptible, but very little was left, and the dense vapors formed had a 
purely sweet taste, absolutely free from any irritating quality. Pure glycerin, 
when heated to 150¡ C. (302¡ F.) in an open crucible, can be ignited, and burns 
with a blue flame. Glycerin of only 90 per cent can be burned with the aid of a 
wick, like alcohol, in a spirit lamp. Absolute glycerin has the specific 
gravity of 1.266 at 15¡ C. (59¡ F.), and boils at 290¡ C. (554¡ F.), while 95 
per cent glycerin has a specific gravity of 1.2596 and boils at 164¡ C. (327.2¡ 
F.) (Gerlach). At one time crystallized glycerin, from a Vienna manufacturer, 
was brought to London, requiring the knife and hammer to break it. It resembled 
rock-candy (sugar), being in white, octahedral crystals, with considerable 
refractive power, and, when melted, the liquid glycerin presented all its usual 
properties, but could not be again reduced to the crystalline condition. It 
seems that prolonged exposure to a temperature of 0¡ C. (32¡ F.) will bring 
about crystallization, and contact with a crystal already formed will promote 
this process. The crystals, while hard and gritty, are very hygroscopic. More 
recently, some specimens, after being melted, were found by Prof. Trimble to 
have a high specific gravity (1.2618) (see Wallace Procter, in Amer. Jour. 
Pharm., 1885, p. 273).

Glycerin dissolves many vegetable exudations and resinous substances. It does 
not dissolve sugar or gum, but readily mixes with syrups and mucilages. It is 
insoluble in fatty matter, and can only be incorporated with it mechanically, 
to effect which it is necessary that the fat should have a soft consistence, 
which may be imparted to it by combination with oil of sweet almonds, or some 
other fixed oil. Glycerin mixes with acetic acid; moistens bodies without 
rendering them greasy, does not become rancid, and is easily charged with the 
aroma of volatile oils.

The solubilities of certain substances in glycerin (Klever) as taken from 
Chemiker Kalender, 1897, are as follows: One hundred parts (by weight) of 
glycerin dissolve at 15.5¡ C. (60¡ F.):

        PARTS.   PARTS. 
      Alum  40 Phosphorus  0.20 
      Ammonium carbonate  20 Potassium arsenate  50 
      Ammonium chloride  20 Potassium bromide  25 
      Arsenic trioxide  20 Potassium chlorate  3.5 
      Arsenic pentoxide  20 Potassium cyanide  32 
      Atropine  3 Potassium iodide  40 
      Atropine sulphate  33 Quinine  0.5 
      Barium chloride  10 Quinine tartrate  0.25 
      Benzoic acid  10 Sodium arsenate  50 
      Boric acid  10 Sodium biborate  60 
      Brucine  2.2 Sodium bicarbonate  8 
      Calcium sulphide  6 Sodium carbonate  98 
      Cinchonine  0.5 Sodium chlorate  20 
      Cinchonine sulphate  6.7 Strychnine  0.25 
      Cupric acetate  10 Strychnine nitrate  4 
      Cupric sulphate  30 Strychnine sulphate  22.50 
      Iodine  1.9 Sulphur  0.10 
      Lead acetate  20 Tannic acid  50 
      Mercuric chloride (corr. subl.) 7.5 Tartar emetic  5.5 
      Mercuric cyanide  27 Urea  50 
      Morphine  0.45 Veratrine  1 
      Morphine acetate  20 Zinc chloride  50 
      Morphine chloride  20 Zinc iodide  40 
      Oxalic acid  15 Zinc sulphate  35 

Glycerin dissolves the vegetable acids, aloes, some resinous substances, the 
deliquescent salts, the sulphates of potassium, sodium, and copper, the 
nitrates of potassium and silver, the alkaline chlorides, caustic potash, 
caustic soda, baryta, strontia, bromine, iodine, and even oxide of lead, and 
one-fifth part of arsenous acid. It dissolves about 1 per cent of its weight of 
calcium sulphate, and 2 per cent of chloride of lead. It dissolves the salts of 
morphine, sulphate of quinine, and, when triturated with these, or with the 
salts of strychnine, veratrine, brucine, and other vegetable alkaloids, forms a 
medicinal cerate very useful for frictions and embrocations. It also dissolves 
sulphides of potassium, of calcium, and of iodine, iodides of sulphur, of 
potassium, and of mercury, and some chlorides. It promotes the solution of 
borax in tincture of myrrh, no water being required; added to tincture of kino 
it retards gelatinization. The vegetable extracts are soluble in it, some of 
the solutions, as of extract of belladonna, forming useful external 
applications. Being possessed of strong antiseptic properties, it preserves 
animal and vegetable substances; meat has been immersed in glycerin for several 
months and preserved its freshness. It dissolves the carbonate of iron 
immediately on its formation, giving a deep-green solution. Like sugar it 
arrests the conversion of the ferrous into ferric salts, and has kept iodide of 
iron for years without change. It may be used in the preparation of spirits 
(essences) of cloves, cinnamon, etc., for syrups of phosphate of iron, bromide 
of iron, and iodide of quinine, for preserving fresh lemon juice, and for 
preserving the soft consistence of I masses and confections. Thus it is seen 
that the solvent powers of glycerin, both diluted and undiluted, are very 
extensive and important.

By oxidation with cold nitric acid, glycerin yields glyceric acid 
(CH2OH.CH.OH.COOH) and a variety of other acids. Potassium permanganate in 
alkaline solution produces oxalic acid. Upon the latter reaction is based a 
quantitative determination of glycerin by Benedict and Zsigmondy, a process 
also indicated by Wm. Fox and J. A. Wanklyn (see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1886, p. 
248). Another method for the quantitative determination of glycerin, by L. 
Legler and O. Hehner (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1887, p. 464, from The Analyst, Jan. 
and Feb., 1887), is based on the fact that glycerin can be completely oxidized 
to carbonic acid and water by being heated with sulphuric acid and potassium 
bichromate. Sulphuric acid combines with glycerin to form an ester 
glycerylsulphuric acid (SO4H.C3H5[OH]2). Likewise glycerin combines with 
phosphoric acid to form a similarly constituted compound (PO4H2.C3H5[OH]2). 
Nitroglycerin is a highly explosive compound that is made by methods safe only 
on a manufacturing scale and in the hands of qualified men (see Spiritus 
Glonoini). Glycerin liberates from borax half its quantity of boric acid; thus 
if blue litmus solution is added to separate quantities of neutral glycerin and 
borax solution, when mixed, a red color results. W. R. Dunstan (Amer. Jour. 
Pharm., 1883, pp. 447-456) has shown that the red color turns blue upon 
warming, and reappears on cooling. Again, when adding glycerin to a mixture of 
molecular quantities of bicarbonate of sodium and borax, the boric acid 
liberated by the glycerin will expel with effervescence half of the carbonic 
acid in the bicarbonate, and monocarbonate will remain (with reference to this 
reaction, see also Mr. L. F. Kebler, Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1894, p. 428).

Glycerin is capable of undergoing fermentation under certain conditions. A. 
Fitz (1877) obtained, by the action of a certain class of fungi, called 
Schizomycetes, from glycerin diluted with twenty times its bulk of water, large 
quantities of normal butylalcohol. and normal butyric acid; also ethyl alcohol, 
capronic acid, hydrogen, and carbonic acid. Freund has also shown that 
trimethyleneglycol (C3H8O2) is one of the principal products formed. This 
substance has more recently been demonstrated by A. A. Noyes and W. H. Watkins 
(Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1895, p. 639), to occur as a troublesome by-product in the 
manufacture of glycerin from fats that have undergone spontaneous 
saponification and subsequent fermentation.

Tests and Uses.-For medicinal purposes, glycerin only should be used that has 
been purified by distillation; an impure glycerin when applied to wounds or 
ulcers is very apt to cause a burning sensation, and a papular eruption on the 
skin; when pure it is unirritating. Formerly its impurities were more numerous 
than now, owing to the imperfect method of its manufacture. The process of 
purifying glycerin by distillation has reduced the proportion of ash 
considerably, which in pure distilled glycerin does not exceed 0.2 per cent, 
while undistilled glycerin from soap lyes may have from 7 to 14 per cent of 
ash. Impurities liable to occur in glycerin are: water, volatile fatty acids 
(e.g., formic and butyric acids), added sugar or glucose, empyreumatic 
substances, oxalic acid, chlorides, sulphates of calcium, magnesium, and heavy 
metals, as iron, lead, zinc, etc. Siebold (1889) observed the presence of 
arsenic in glycerin (in one instance, 0.04 per cent), an impurity due to the 
employment, during manufacture, of sulphuric acid containing it. When present 
in glycerin, arsenic is exceedingly difficult to remove; it is claimed that 
agitating with recently precipitated ferric hydrate will remove this 
contamination (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1890, p. 523). The presence of iron in 
glycerin, due, according to Haussmann (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1895, p. 84) to its 
being kept in tinned iron cans, disturbs the color of pharmaceutical 
preparations in which glycerin is combined with tannin, or phenols, or 
salicylic acid. Another impurity occasionally occurring in commercial glycerin 
is the trimethyleneglucol before mentioned. Glycerin, beside answering to the 
official description given before, should conform to the following tests of the 
U. S. P.: "If a fused bead of borax, on a loop of platinum wire, be moistened 
with glycerin, and then held in the non-luminous flame, the latter will be 
transiently tinted deep green. An aqueous solution of glycerin is neutral to 
litmus paper. When a small portion of glycerin is heated to boiling in an open 
porcelain or platinum capsule, and then gently ignited, it should burn and 
vaporize so as to leave not more than a dark stain (absence of dextrin and 
sugar), which would leave a bulky, difficultly combustible, charred mass); and 
on full combustion no residue whatever should be left (absence of fixed 
impurities). If 5 Cc. of glycerin be mixed with 50 Cc. of water and 10 drops of 
hydrochloric acid in a small flask, and heated for half an hour on a boiling 
water-bath, then 10 Cc. of the hot liquid mixed with 2 Cc. of sodium hydrate 
T.S. and 1 Cc. of alkaline cupric tartrate V.S., no yellowish-red cloudiness or 
precipitate should appear within six hours (absence of sugars). On gently 
warming a mixture of equal volumes of glycerin and of concentrated sulphuric 
acid in a test-tube, the liquid should not acquire a dark color (absence of 
readily carbonizable impurities). On gradually heating 5 Cc. of glycerin with 3 
Cc. of diluted sulphuric acid in a test-tube, short of boiling, no offensive or 
acidulous odor should be evolved (absence of fatty acids, etc.). No color, 
cloudiness or precipitate should appear when separate portions of its aqueous 
solution (1 in 10) are treated with hydrogen sulphide or ammonium sulphide T.S. 
(absence of metals), barium chloride T.S. (sulphuric acid), calcium chloride 
T.S. (oxalic acid), or ammonium oxalate T.S. (calcium salts). If a mixture of 2 
Cc. of glycerin with 10 Cc. of water, contained in a perfectly clean, 
glass-stoppered cylinder, be heated for five minutes in a water-bath at a 
temperature of 60¡ to 65¡ C. (140¡ to 149¡ F.), then mixed with 10 drops of 
silver nitrate T.S., and the cylinder set aside, well stoppered, in diffused 
daylight, no change of transparency or color should occur in the mixture within 
five minutes (absence of chlorides, and limit of impurities having reducing 
properties)"-(U.S. P.). The presence of butyric acid may be detected, according 
to the British Pharmacopoeia (1898), by adding a mixture of equal volumes of 
alcohol (90 per cent) and diluted sulphuric acid, and gently heating, whereupon 
the pineapple odor of butyric ether is at once developed. As pure glycerin does 
not polarize transmitted light, the presence of sugar may be easily recognized 
also by optical methods. The British Pharmacopoeia (1898) fixes the limit of 
arsenic in glycerin by the following test: "2 Cc. diluted with 5 Cc. of a 
mixture of 1 part of hydrochloric acid and 7 parts of water, 1 Gm. of pure zinc 
being added, and the whole placed in a long test-tube, the mouth of which is 
covered by a piece of filter paper moistened with a drop or two of test 
solution of mercuric chloride, and dried, should not afford a yellow stain on 
the paper, even after 15 minutes (limit of arsenium)"-(Br. Ph., 1898). (Also 
see article on arsenic in glycerin, by A. C. Langmuir, Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc., 
1899, p. 133.) The most extensive use of glycerin, in the industries and arts, 
is in the manufacture of nitroglycerin; large quantities are also used in the 
making of cosmetics, and for filling wet-process gas meters to prevent the 
containing fluid from freezing in winter and evaporating in summer. It is also 
employed as a food preservative, and for the treatment of wine, vinegar and 
beer (this process being called scheelizing), and in addition to its use in 
pharmacy and medicine, it is also employed for many practical purposes in the 
mechanical arts.

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.-Stimulant, antiseptic, laxative and 
demulcent. Pure glycerin abstracts water from the tissues, leaving them hard 
and irritated, and if of the skin liable to crack; impure glycerin, besides 
acting in the same manner, is more of an irritant on account of traces of 
sulphuric and nitric acids as well as certain organic acids, and other 
deleterious substances contained in it. In view of these facts only the purest 
glycerin should be used, and that should be mixed with a certain amount of 
water or rose-water before using. Glycerin may be used in prurigo, psoriasis, 
impetigo, lichen, lepra, pityriasis, herpes exedens, and some syphilitic and 
strumous affections. M. Fonssagrives considers its usefulness in parasitical 
cutaneous affections to be due to its antiseptic, antiputrid, and 
antiparasitical properties. Glycerin has been used in the place of cod-liver 
oil, to improve nutrition in convalescence from exhausting diseases, and in 
asthenic conditions generally. It is also used as a solvent of many alkaloids, 
extracts, salts, acids, etc., etc., especially for local application to 
inflamed, ulcerated or suppurating parts; also, as stated above, to several 
cutaneous maladies. Pure glycerin has been recommended for diabetic patients by 
Drs. Pavy and Abbot Smith, as a substitute for cane sugar, honey, molasses, 
etc., sweetening tea, coffee, various drinks, cakes, etc., with it. It is 
generally regarded as a non-nutritious substance at the present day, and has 
lost prestige as a food in phthisis and diabetes, and other exhausting 
diseases. It can not compare with cod-liver oil for this purpose, though there 
is some good evidence that it lessens, and in some instances checks, the 
excretion of sugar in saccharine diabetes. Large amounts of glycerin act not 
unlike alcohol, producing intoxication and the same gastric effects. From 
one-third to one-twelfth of glycerin may be added to washes or cataplasms, to 
render them soothing, and to keep the latter moist for some time. It acts as an 
emollient and soothing application, absorbing moisture from the air, and 
preventing the parts to which it is applied from becoming too dry.

A very small amount added to a few grains of borax and rose-water, furnishes 
one of the most elegant and efficient washes for chapped hands, face, lips, or 
nipples. A small quantity of glycerin added to pills or extracts, will preserve 
them from becoming hard and moldy. Vaccine virus may be preserved by mixing it 
with glycerin. It has been highly recommended for deafness in which there is a 
partial or total absence of ceruminous secretion, by protecting the tympanum, 
and gradually restoring the parts to their natural condition; it is likewise 
said to cause hearing in cases where the tympanum is thickened and indurated, 
or where it is in an unsound state or destroyed by ulceration; but in this last 
case it is not permanent; and when there is a hardness of the cerumen, and 
induration of the tympanum, it has proved successful. The plan is to moisten 
wool with the glycerin, pure or diluted with water, and pass it into the ear. 
In fact water and glycerin, or glycerin alone, are the best solvents for 
impacted and hardened cerumen, and by softening the mass with either, it may be 
readily removed by syringing carefully with warm water. An efficient lotion for 
dressing the parts after the removal of the impacted mass, is the following: Rx 
Colorless hydrastis (Lloyd's), j; glycerin, gtt. xx; distillate of hamamelis, 
q. s. flss. Mix. Sig. Apply warm to the parts by means of cotton. The bland and 
unirritating character of pure glycerin, in the presence of a little water, its 
permanence when exposed to the atmosphere (except its absorption of moisture), 
and the completeness with which it shields the parts covered by it, render it 
susceptible of many important applications. Mr. J. H. Ecky has given a formula 
for the preparation of a glycerin ointment, especially useful for chapped 
hands, lips, excoriations of the skin, etc. It will also serve as a medium for 
applying powders, etc., to ulcers, cutaneous affections, or other difficulties, 
by combining them with it, in the desired proportions. The formula is as 
follows: Melt together spermaceti half an ounce, and white wax 1 drachm, with 
oil of almonds 2 fluid ounces, at a moderate heat; put these into a Wedgewood 
mortar, add glycerin 1 fluid ounce, and rub together until well mixed and cold. 
An excellent lotion for cracked hands, and especially for those who work in 
water, is the following: Rx Carbolic acid (liquefied by warmth), gtt. v; 
tincture of arnica, flss; glycerin, flss; rosewater (or water or distillate of 
hamamelis), q. s. flvj. Mix. Sig. Wash the hands thoroughly with asepsin soap 
and warm water, rinse them, and apply the lotion while the hands are still wet.

A Glycerin Balsam for chapped lips and hands is made by melting together 1 
ounce, each, of white wax and spermaceti, then stirring in half a pound of 
sweet almond oil and 2 ounces of glycerin, and when nearly cold, half a drachm 
of attar of roses. Mr. Wilson recommends glycerin as an injection into the 
bladder to dissolve calculous deposits, especially urea, and phosphate of 
calcium; also to be used as a substitute for syrups in preserving fruits; mixed 
with alcohol or pyroxylic spirit as an economical fuel for spirit-lamps; and as 
a remedy in diseases of the mucous membrane of the stomach. Dr. Wm. Bayes 
advises a solution of tannic acid in pure glycerin as a local application to 
local hemorrhages, by a sponge or brush, also to the vaginal, uterine, 
urethral, rectal, or nasal membranes, where a strong and non-irritant 
astringent lotion is desired. Glycerin dissolves nearly its own weight of 
tannic acid; the solution should be recently prepared and be kept in the dark, 
else it will decompose (see Glycerites). On account of its affinity for the 
water of the tissues, glycerin may be used as an astringent. It has thus been 
employed to dry and constringe wounds, lessening the tendency to the formation 
of pus, and a cotton pledget first dipped in hot water, squeezed, and saturated 
with glycerin, applied to fresh wounds, is said to cause union by first 
intention. Glycerin is an efficient astringent for leucorrhoea. Otorrhoea, 
ozoena, and other catarrhal discharges may be lessened by the local use of 
glycerin. Abscesses, boils, carbuncles, and local oedemas, as of the prepuce, 
may be treated with it. A mixture of glycerin and water is in common use to 
relieve dryness of the mouth induced by febrile and other states. Internally 
administered, glycerin is somewhat laxative, and cures of chronic constipation 
and hemorrhoids, both blind and bleeding, have been accredited to its use. When 
used by rectal injection, or by means of the glycerin suppository, it certainly 
is a very efficient remedy for habitual costiveness, provided the fecal mass be 
located in the rectum, and there is no lesion of the parts. If the parts be 
sound and the glycerin pure, no smarting or pain is likely to follow its use. 
It may be employed even with very young infants, and a few injections will 
generally break up the constipation habit. Occasionally irritation of the 
rectum has followed in infants, but such instances are rare, and probably due 
to an unhealthy condition of the rectum or to the use of an impure glycerin. 
The amount to be used is from 1/2 to 1 drachm. A small glass syringe may be 
employed. Added to washes and ointments for skin diseases, glycerin aids in 
allaying itching, when present. One of the best applications for tibial 
ulcerations is the following: Rx Glycerin, j; carbolic acid (melted by warmth), 
gr. iij; aqua pura, q. s. Oj. Mix. Sig. Bathe the part two or three times a 
day, and keep the part wetted by laying upon it a cloth saturated with the 
solution.

Dr. Goddard has given a formula for a very adhesive glycerin paste, suitable 
for fixing paper labels to glass and other surfaces, and which keeps well; it 
is to dissolve 1 ounce of gum Arabic in 2 fluid ounces of boiling water, add 2 
fluid drachms of glycerin, and strain if necessary. This forms a valuable paste 
for druggists, chemists, and others. A glycerin jelly is prepared by intimately 
mixing half a drachm of soft soap with 2 fluid drachms of pure honey, then 
gradually adding 5 ounces of clear olive oil, stirring without intermission 
until all the oil is taken up. Care must be taken not to add the oil too fast. 
Or it may be prepared by rubbing and mixing well together half an ounce of 
powdered gum Arabic, and 4 ounces of simple syrup, then add the yolks of 3 
eggs, and when well mixed, add gradually 4 ounces of olive oil, and 2 ounces of 
glycerin, previously mixed together. The ordinary dose of glycerin is 1 drachm, 
though from 2 to 4 drachms night and morning may be used.

Related Preparation.-GLYCONES, prepared by Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind., 
are rectal suppositories containing 95 per cent of pure glycerin, covered with 
an easily removable coating which is impervious and unchangeable, preserving 
the suppositories in all climates. They are designed to overcome constipation, 
and quickly and easily produce rectal evacuation.

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